This information from WFAS2015 in Toronto
Seino Acupuncture and Orthopedics Clinic Director of the clinic
Meiji Acupuncture and Moxibustion University a visiting professor
Juntendo University Medical Department a researcher
Acupuncture and moxibustion therapy performed in Japan has thus far been introduced over 3 consecutive years until this conference. The titles were “What is Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion” in 2012, “What is Oriental Medicine” in 2013 and “What is acupuncture and moxibustion medicine” in 2014. And “Introduction to Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion Treatment Tools” in 2013, “Current status of analysis methods used in Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion treatment” in 2014. Another title we made a presentation this year was “Features of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion ”.
At first glance, it appears that a variety of techniques are currently being practiced worldwide, but all of these techniques are founded on Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion therapy. This is because Japan is the only country where basic techniques have been handed down as national therapy for over 1,500 years. The number of countries offering acupuncture and moxibustion therapy has rapidly increased since 2000, and in the future, it is believed that more diversified acupuncture and moxibustion therapy techniques will be created taking into account traditional medical techniques practiced in these countries and the climate and ethnicity of each country. However, the basic philosophy behind traditional medicine, including acupuncture and moxibustion therapy, is a shared philosophy based on the concept of “qi,” which would allow for the continued spread and development of new acupuncture and moxibustion techniques. The literal translation is “acupuncture and moxibustion techniques that will be created in the future.” without their misinterpretation. Advocates of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy who have participated in and spoken at all eight general assemblies since the founding of the World Federation of Acupuncture–Moxibustion Societies in 1987 have given their reasons for continuing to give presentations on the basic philosophy behind acupuncture and moxibustion medicine and treatment for the first time in recent years. I will now introduce this year’s presentation, “What is qi?”
The history of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy dates back 2000 years or more. This traditional medical care originated in the Chinese region, and has now spread worldwide. At the dawn of the Han Dynasty, Chinese medicine came to be referred to as “qi medicine.” Research into how “qi” came to be used in medicine is the most basic and important part of the continued understanding and development of Chinese medicine. Developing a shared understanding of the concept of “qi” is crucial in order to build a common language for the theory and practice of Chinese medicine. I therefore examined “qi” on the basis of ancient Chinese literature.
In 2007, the World Health Organization set out definitions of traditional medicine, Chinese medicine, Oriental medicine, traditional Japanese medicine , Korean medicine, and others.
WHO defined “qi” as ‘The basic element that constitutes the cosmos and, through its movements, changes and transformations, produces everything in the world, including the human body and life activities. In the field of medicine, qi refers both to the refined nutritive substance that flows within the human body as well as to its functional activities’.
“Qi,” as the basic philosophy behind Chinese medicine, is a philosophy that was formed over a long period of time from ancient China to the Han Dynasty.
In order to understand what “qi” is, I examined the literature published in the “Si Ku Quan Shu四庫全書”other unearthed documents.
“Qi” was used in 841 instances in 17 major pieces of ancient literature and 74 instances in 25 parts of nine major pieces of unearthed literature. A total of 767 instances of “qi” from 42 pieces of literature were thus examined. The major pieces of ancient literature were 17 pieces, “Guoyu 国語 (National Language),” “Lunyu 論語 (The Analects),” “Laozi 老子(Book of Venerable Masters),” “Mozi 墨子 (Master Mo),” “Liezi 列子 (Master Lie),” “Mengzi 孟子 (Master Meng),” “Zhuangzi 荘子 (Master Zhuang),” “Xunzi 荀子 (Master Xun),” “Hanfeizi 韓非子 (Master Han Fei),” “Yi Jing 易経 (Classic of Changes),” “Chunqiu Zuo Shi Zhuan 春秋左氏伝 (Spring and Autumn Annals),” “Zhou Li 周礼 (The Rites of Zhou),” “Yi Li 儀礼 (Etiquette and Rites),” “Liji 礼記 (The Book of Rites),” “Guanzi 管子 (Master Guan),” “Lu Shi Chunqiu呂氏春秋 (Spring and Autumn of Master Lu),” and “Huainan Zi 淮南子 (The Master(s) of Huainan).” When the character for “qi” seen in these 767 instances was examined in accordance with collation notes and so forth, the character in question was observed a total of 764 times. The major unearthed pieces of literature were “Bao Shan Zhanguo Chu Jian包山戦国楚簡,” “Wang Shan Chu Jian望山楚簡,” “Jiu Dian Chu Jian九店楚簡,” “Guo Dian Chu Jian郭店楚簡,” “Shanghai Bowuguan Zang Zhanguo Chu Zhu Shu上海博物館蔵戦国楚竹書,” “Shui Hu De Qin Jian睡虎地秦簡,” “Longgang Qin Jian龍崗秦簡,” “Hunan Daxue Yuelu Shuyuan Cang Qin Jian湖南大学嶽麓書院蔵秦簡” and “Ma Wangduihan Mu Boshu馬王堆漢墓帛書.” Seventy-four instances that could be interpreted as the character for “qi” were examined over the 25 parts of these nine pieces of literature and 72 instances involved the use of the character for “qi.” Texts featuring 192 terms using the character for “qi” that contained just the radical for “qi” were extracted and all meanings of the character for “qi” that were used were investigated. The character for “qi” was considered a suffix representing the “workings” of things and humans in the natural world. These 192 terms were classified into the four following categories on the basis of this meaning.
(1) “Qi” used as a suffix indicating “the workings of the natural world”
(2) “Qi” used as a suffix indicating “the workings of breathing”
(3) “Qi” used as a suffix indicating “the workings of the body”
(4) “Qi” used as a suffix indicating “the workings of the mind”
The shared philosophy of “qi” denotes the “workings” of things. The character for “qi” therefore came to be used to represent physical function.
Traditional medicine handed down throughout Asia, such as acupuncture and moxibustion therapy, hot water therapy, massage therapy and yoga, is supported by the idea that the “mind” (heart/spirit) governs the “body.” Traditional medicine is used to adjust imbalances of the body on the basis of the philosophy that “diseases of the body occur after diseases of the mind(heart/spirit).” Acupuncture and moxibustion therapy is one of the most effective forms of traditional medicine involving the use of needles and Japanese mugwort.
The 767 instances of the character for “qi” in the 17 major pieces of ancient literature and 74 instances in the 25 parts of the nine major pieces of unearthed literature (total 841 instances in 42 pieces of literature) were examined in accordance with collation notes such as “Shisan Jing Zhushu Jiaokan Ji十三経注疏校勘記” and “Huang Qing Jing Jie皇清経解,” which revealed a total of 836 instances: 764 applicable instances of the character for “qi” in the major pieces of ancient literature and 72 characters that should be interpreted as “qi” in the major pieces of unearthed literature. An examination of the significance of “qi” seen in the 836 instances in the 42 pieces of literature revealed that “qi” was used as a suffix representing the natural order of heaven and earth derived from oracle writings, and was thus used in more than half the terms expressing “the workings of the natural world.” Some pieces of literature also attempted to represent the existence of humans between heaven and earth in terms of “qi.” This shows that the forces and workings related to the natural order of heaven and earth and the body are included in the concept of “qi.” The character for “qi” itself is a suffix that represents breathing, but the literature did not reveal widespread use of “qi” as a suffix representing “breathing,” whereas it was often used in relation to “the mind(heart/spirit).” This suggested that ancient people attempted to express “the workings of the mind(heart/spirit)” in humans with the character for “qi.” “Qi” is used as a suffix representing the “force,” “workings” or “action” of the universe, nature, and the humans living within. The World Health Organization defines “qi” as “a substance” and “a thing that creates everything” that also has “functional activities.” Using this philosophy in definitions in the field of medicine gives rise to ambiguous theories when attempting to understand the body, which is thought to interfere with the scientific elucidation of the mechanisms underlying acupuncture and moxibustion medicine. The shared concept of “qi” is “the workings” of things. Acupuncture and moxibustion therapy is designed to adjust the balance of the “mind(heart/spirit)” and “body” on the basis of this basic philosophy. Acupuncture and moxibustion medicine is a discipline where the experience-based medicine of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy is backed by scientific evidence in the form of analytical methods of modern medicine. This is thought to facilitate the development of acupuncture and moxibustion medicine.